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PNHS Newsletter Vol. 5


Vol. 6 • October 2004 • Web: • E-mail:



Cavite State University Hosts 25th


National Conference


Cavite State University in Indang is hosting the 25th National Conference on Local and National History of the Philippine National Historical Society (PNHS). The theme of the conference is “Focus on Cavite and Beyond: Local History in the Context of National History. PNHS President, Dr. Bernardita R. Churchill, convenes the conference on October 21-23 with Dr. Emmanuel F. Calairo, Director of the Cavite Studies Center, DLSU-Dasmariñas.


This is the 25th Annual National Conference on Local and National Historical Society to be convened by PNHS and the first time such an annual conference on history is being held in Cavite Province. Hence, many papers focus on various aspects of Cavite history and culture. However, in keeping with PNHS tradition, the conference also includes a number of papers on other regions in the Philippines. The long-term goal/mission of the PNHS is to collect a body of significant literature on local history that could be useful in writing the total/national history or histories of the Filipino people.


The following are the Cavite papers to be presented in this conference: “The Archaeology of Cavite Puerto,” to be read by Philip Nazareno for his late father, Antonio G. Nazareno, late Vice Mayor of Cavite City, who sadly passed away on August 14, 2004; “Ang Anting-anting sa Cavite,” by Jeffrey Alfaro Lubang (National Historical Institute, Curator, Maragondon Trial House); “Some Unpublished Folk Songs of Cavite Province: An Analysis of their Musical Elements in Relation to Curricular Utility” by Rosalinda G. Garibay and Edgar B. Tibayan (Cavite Studies Center, DLSU-Dasmariñas; “Gambilà: A Preliminary Framework for the Study of Philippine Culinary History with Multidisciplinary Impact on Contemporary Social Reality,” by Felice Prudente Sta. Maria (Writer, Independent Scholar); “A Hispanic Legacy: Chabacano Poems,” by Emmanuel Luis A. Romanillos (UP Diliman); “Social Realities in Early 19th Century Santa Cruz de Malabon as Reflected in Religious Folklore,” by José Alain J. Austria (College of Saint Benilde, DLSU System); “Mga Limot na Bayaning Manunulat ng Cavite,” by Efren R. Abueg (Writer-in-Residence, Cavite Studies Center, DLSU-Dasmariñas); “Ang Samahang Kudyapi at Iba Pang Mga Alagad ng Sining: Isang Paga-aral sa Kasaysayan ng Panitikan sa Bayan ng Noveleta, Kabite,” by Emmanuel Franco Calairo (Cavite Studies Center, DLSU-Dasmariñs); “Notes on the Artistic Achievements of the Secular Clergy of Spanish Colonial Cavite,” by Regalado Trota José, Jr. (University of Santo Tomas); “Cavite Population History during the Nineteenth Century,” by Francis A. Gealogo (Ateneo de Manila University); “Pacification Through Land Redistribution: The Case of Hacienda de Imus, 1900-1913,” by Rene R. Escalante (De La Salle University-Manila); “Ang Buhay ng Pangkaraniwang Mamamayan sa Cavite sa Panahon ng Himagsikan, 1896-1898,” by Ronaldo R. Mactal (De La Salle University); “Historical Development of Cavite State University,” by Ruperto S. Sangalang and A.G. Papa (Cavite State University); “A Survey of Documentary Sources in the Archives of the University of Santo Tomas from 1619-1899,” by Maria Eloisa P. de Castro (University of Santo Tomas), and “The Historiography of Cavite Province in the Context of National History,” by Bernardita R. Churchill.


The other papers to be presented are the following:“Roman Catholicism in Limasawa Island,” by Daniel Codilla Talde (UP in the Visayas-Tacloban); “Juan de Santa Cruz and the Establishment of the Spanish Mission of the Marianas Islands during the 17th Century” by Augusto V. de Viana (National Historical Institute); “Captain Mariano A. Pacheco: The Most Accomplished Revolutionary Leader during the Philippine-American War in Leyte,” by Rolando O. Borrinaga (School of Health Sciences, UP Manila, Palo, Leyte); “Visayan-Tagalog Tensions in the Philippine Revolution,” Ear; Jude Paul Cleope (Silliman University); “Parallels and Contrasts in the History of Muslim Filipinos,” by Calbi A. Asain (MSU-Sulu); “Walter H. Loving and the Philippine Constabulary Band,” by Antonio C. Hila (De La Salle University); and “The Historical Novel,” by Elmer A. Ordoñez (University of the Philippines).






24th National Conference Hosted


by Surigaonon Heritage Center


(November 20-23, 2003)


The Surigaonon Heritage Center in Surigao City hosted the 24th National Conference on Local and National History of the Philippine National Historical Society on November 20-22. 2003. The themes of the conference were “Philippine Cultural History” and “The Ethnohistory of Mindanao and Sulu.” Surigaonon Heritage Center President, Fernando A. Almeda, Jr., was the local convenor. This was the second time the PNHS held its national conference in Surigao City, the first time being in 1985, also with Fernando A. Almeda, Jr. as convenor. Mr. Almeda is one of two Vice-Presidents for Mindanao and Sulu of the Philippine National Historical Society.


Several papers on Philippine cultural history were presented at the conference, including the following: “Cultural History Through the Lens: Tracing the Nationalist Literary Tradition in Post-War Cinema,” by Joyce Arriola, Ph.D. (University of Santo Tomas); “Majaradia Lawana: Isang Napapanahong Pagbasa,” by Reynaldo T. Candido, Jr. (University of Santo Tomas); “Religion, Rituals and Folklore: A Cultural Overview of the Lagunenses,” by Gil G. Gotiangco, Jr. II (University of the Philippines – Diliman); and “The Kundiman from Folk Song to Art Song,” by Antonio C. Hila, Ph.D. (De La Salle University – Manila).


The conference also highlighted studies on Mindanao and Sulu, with the following papers: World War II Guerilla Action in Surigao,” by Winston Dean S. Almeda (Surigaonon Heritage Center); The Sulu-China Connection: Past and Present,” by Calbi A. Asain, Ph.D. (Mindanao State University-Sulu); “The Double that We Cannot Eat: Initiation and Blood Sacrifice Rituals, Cockfight, and Beauty Contest in a Mixed Agusan Manobo-Visayan Cebuano Community, Caraga, Mindanao,” by José S. Buenconsejo, Ph.D. (University of the Philippines-Diliman); “Mindanao Ground: Remaking Ethnohistory through Heritage Advocacy,” by Erlinda M. Burton, Ph.D. (Xavier University) and Antonio Montalvan II (Liceo de Cagayan University); “Writing on Art of/for/from the Mindanao-Sulu Region: A Preliminary Assessment,” by Marilyn R. Canta (University of the Philippines-Diliman); “Slavery to Freedom: Revisiting the Ulahingan Epic of the Livunganen-Arumanen Manobos,” by Earl Jude Paul L. Cleope, Ph.D. (Silliman University-Dumaguete);“Mindanao Memorabilia in Spain,” by Regalado Trota Jose, Jr. (National Committee for Culture and the Arts-Committee on Monuments and Sites); and “Rebellions and Mutinies in Mindanao: A Quick Review,” by Macario D. Tiu, Ed. D. (Ateneo de Davao University).


Studies on Philippine national history and the local histories of other Philippine regions were also the subject of discussion of a number paper presentations, including “An Ethnohistorical Study of Communication in the Southern Cordillera, Northern Luzon,” by Patricia O. Afable, Ph.D. (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA); “Thomasites: Pipers of the American Dream,” by Luz S. Almeda, Ph.D. of the Surigaonon Heritage Center; From Sangley to Tsinoy: A Study on the Identities of the Baguio Chinese Youth,” by Anavic M. Bagamaspad (University of the Philippines Baguio); “A Balangiga Survivor’s Letter from Samar, January 18, 1902,” by Rolando O. Borrinaga, Ph.D. (University of the Philippines-Manila, Palo, Leyte); “History and the Phenomenon of Migration: Migrant Muslims in the Cordillera,” by Maria Nela B. Florendo, Ph.D. (University of the Philippines Baguio); “Life and Times of the Filipino Seamen During the Period of Spanish Colonialism,” by Rolando G. Talampas of the (University of the Philippines-Manila); “Cordillera Anthropomorphic Carvings: Form and Function,” by Delfin Tolentino, Jr. (University of the Philippines Baguio); and “Revisiting the St. Louis Exposition of 1904: Filipinos on Display,” by Stephen Henry S. Totanes, Ph.D. (Ateneo de Manila University).






PNHS Forum Series 10 (2004 Series)

January 30, 2004, UP Village


John Nance, “The Tasaday Meet the 21st Century”


John Nance covered the Vietnam War for the Associated Press for two years, then became AP Bureau Chief in Manila from 1968-1972, after which he stayed in the Philippines for five more years to observe, photograph, and write about the Tasaday, who changed his life. He subsequently produced three books, a short film, and scores of newspaper and magazine articles about them. The claim that the Tasaday were a hoax brought him back to the Philippines in 1986 to re-enter the rainforest, re-study the people, help counter the hoax allegations (which turned out to be the real hoax), and to resume documenting Tasaday culture as it has gone through tumultuous changes. Nance has continued to visit the Tasaday annually and in the late 1990s established an association, “Friends of the Tasaday,” that supports their ongoing struggle to survive with programs of assistance in education, medicine, agricultural training, and land protection.






Institutional Linkages



Since its founding in 1941, the Philippine National Historical Society has actively maintained institutional linkages with centers and institutes of learning and research on various aspects of Philippine history and culture. These are the institutional profiles of organizations and institutes that the PNHS currently has active linkages with.


Manila Studies Association, Inc.

40 Matiwasay Street, UP Village

Diliman, Quezon City 1101

Tel: 921-4575 Telefax: 926-1347


President: Prof. Bernardita R. Churchill, Ph.D.

PNHS Institutional Member (2004)


            The Manila Studies Association was formally established on June 15, 1989, at the initiative of the late Prof. Alfredo Tiamson of UP Manila after a successful 1st Manila Studies Conference. It is a non-profit professional organization devoted to the study of all aspects of Manila studies – historical and contemporary. The MSA annual conferences have been held in various institutions in Manila, including Adamson University, De La Salle University, Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, the University of Santo Tomas, and at the National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Papers from the MSA Conferences have been published in a monograph series entitled Manila.


Cavite Studies Center

De La Salle University - Dasmariñas, Cavite

Director: Assoc. Prof. Emmanuel Franco Calairo, Ph.D.

Tel: (046) 416-4531, loc. 3141

Fax: (046) 416-4397, loc. 3151

PNHS Institutional Member (2004)


The Cavite Studies Center (CSC) is the research arm of De La Salle University - Dasmariñas, focusing on historical and cultural research on the Province of Cavite. To date, the Cavite Studies Center, in cooperation with the Cavite Historical Society, Inc., has published various books on Cavite town histories and on the methodologies of local history writing. The Center is currently developing its collection of photocopied archival documents from various archives and microfilm reels on selected rare periodicals.


Department of History

University of Asia and the Pacific

Pasig City, Metro Manila

Chair: Maria Svetlana Camacho, Ph.D.

PNHS Institutional Member (2004)


Institute of Bicol History and Culture

Ateneo de Naga University, Naga City 440

Director: Assoc. Prof. Stephen Henry Totanes, Ph.D.

Tel: (054) 473-08-21; Fax: (054)472-9253



The Institute of Bikol History and Culture was launched on February 15, 2002 as the research unit of the Ateneo de Naga University. It is primarily concerned with the preservation of materials on Bikol history and culture and with the productive use of such materials in research, fora, and symposia.


The official journal of the Institute is Sarabihón, A Journal of Sorsogon Studies.


Juan D. Nepomuceno Center for Kapampangan Studies

Holy Angel University, Angeles City

Director: Robert P. Tantingco

Tel: (045) 888-8691; Fax: (045) 888-2514; E-mail:



The Center for Kapampangan Studies formally opened on March 8, 2002 and was established for purposes of research, publication, training and instruction, advocacy, conservation and outreach, and performances on Kapampangan history and culture. The Center publishes a quarterly newsletter, Singsing.

National Commission for Culture and the Arts - Committee on Historical Research

633 General Luna Street

Intramuros, Manila 2002



The Philippine National Historical Society, Inc., is an accredited organization of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts and its representative (the PNHS President) sits in the Committee on Historical Research.

PNHS Members serving as Executive Committee Members


Earl Jude Paul Cleope, Ph.D. - Vice Head

Rene R., Escalante, Ph.D. - Secretary

Maria Eloisa P. de Castro, Assistant Secretary

Ronaldo R. Mactal, Ph.D.

Daniel C. Talde

Francis A. Gealogo, Ph.D. - PNHS Representative

Emmanuel F. Calairo, Ph.D.

Violeta Ignacio, Ph.D.


Surigaonon Heritage Center, Surigao City

President: Fernando A. Almeda, Jr.

Executive Director: Irenetta C. Montinola, Ph.D.


The Surigaonon Heritage Center (SHC) was incorporated on October 8, 1986. The Center was the recipient of the Rotary Outstanding Surigaonon Award (ROSA) for Institution (History & Culture) Category in 2000. On February 14, 2001, it opened its museum-study center and library, making it one of the few, if not the only, non-governmental organization (NGO) to have that kind of facility.


It is responsible for the installation in Surigao City of the first National Historical Institute (NHI) marker in both Surigao provinces, officially declaring Surigao City, instead of Butuan City, as the site of the first hoisting of the flag of the first Philippine Republic in Mindanao on December 26, 1898. The SHC is duly recognized as an affiliate of the National Historical Institute.


One of its major projects is the promotion and popularization of the yearly celebration of the historic Battle of Surigao Strait that continuously draws the admiration and attention of both local and foreign tourists. The Battle of Surigao Strait, held every October 24 and 25 is, in fact, one of the most significant celebrations of the City and Province of Surigao del Norte.


Samaka (Samahan ng mga Mag-aaral sa Kasaysayan)

Department of Social Sciences

College of Arts and Social Sciences

Philippine Normal University

Taft Avenue, Manila

President: Redentor Arcelo Salonga

Adviser: Remedios C. Ong






International Linkages


Some members of the Philippine National Historical Society, are currently affiliated with international academic associations, especially organized to promote scholarly exchange among members of the academic community involved in Philippine, Southeast Asian, and Asian studies. Some of these associations are the following:


Philippine Studies Association for Australia, Inc. (PSAA)

Asian Studies Association of Australia (ASAA)


Home page:

President: Michael Pinches, Ph.D.

Secretary: Paul Mathews, Ph.D.


The PSAA publishes a Newsletter which highlights significant achievements of Filipinists and trends in Philippine studies in Australia.


Philippine Studies Group of the Association for Asian Studies

Association for Asian Studies

Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

Executive Secretary: Susan Russell, Ph.D.

The PNHS President serves as a Member of the Board of the Advisory Council until 2007.

PSG Web:

Pilipinas: A Journal of Philippine Studies

Editor: Paul Mathews, Ph.D.


AAS Journal: Journal of Asian Studies


Asociación Española de Estudios del Pacífico

Colegio Mayor Universitario Nrta. Sra. De Africa

Avenida Ramiro de Maetzu, s/n. Ciudad Universitario

28040 Madrid, España


The Asociación dates back to 1986 with the establishment of the Asociación Cultural “Islas del Pacífico.” In 1988, it adopted the name Asociación Española de Estudios del Pacífico (AEEP). Florentino Rodao is a lifetime PNHS member The Asociación has engaged in various activities, including publications, conferences and roundtable discussions, exhibits and seminars. It has been publishing the Revista Española del Pacífico since 1991. Among its publications are the following: Estudios sobre Filipinas y las Islas del Pacífico (1989); España y el Pacífico(1989); Orientate en Oriente (1997); España y el Pacífico 2 (1997);



Philippine Social Science Center

Commonwealth Avenue, Quezon City 1101

Tel: 921-4575          Telefax: 926-13347



The Philippine Studies Association, Inc., (PSA) was formed in 1984 with the purpose “to promote study, criticism, and research in Philippine languages, literature, culture and society, and tofurther the common interests of teachers and scholars in these fields. (By-Laws, Article 1, Section 2). The PSA is duly registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC Reg. No. 124621). Among its charter members were Ofelia R. Angangco, Isagani R. Cruz, the late Doreen G. Fernandez, Andrew Gonzalez, FSC, Patricia B. Licuanan, Bienvenido Lumbera, and Nicanor Tiongson.


To implement this goal, the association’s first activity was the First National Philippine Studies Conference held at the Philippine Social Science Center in Quezon City from February 11-13, 1985. The conference brought together in fruitful interaction scholars engaged in the different fields of Philippine Studies. In an exchange of research methods, findings, and perspectives, there was interdisciplinary dialogue on Philippine matters and materials among scholars outside Metro Manila, scholars new in the field or as yet unpublished, as well as established scholars. As the first Philippine Studies conference on Philippine soil, it was an exploration of the extent, development, and needs of Philippine studies and an update on the breadth and depth of the field. It also affirmed Philippine Studies as a field, interdisciplinarity as a mode of dialogue, and the examination of Philippine reality both micro- and macro- as an ongoing concern.


The Philippine Studies Association, Inc., is linked with the Philippine Studies Committee of the Southeast Asia Council of the Association for Asian Studies (USA) (currently chaired by Susan Russell), and the International Organizing Committee for Philippine Studies Conferences (currently chaired by Belinda A. Aquino, Director, Center for Philippine Studies, University of Hawai’i at Mano’a).


As a result of this linkage, the PSA sponsored the following international conferences: 3rd International Philippine Studies Conference on July 13-17,. 1989, at the Philippine Social Center; 4th International Philippine Studies Conference in Canberra, Australia in 1992; 6th International Philippine Studies Conference at the Philippine Social Science Center in 2000. In 2004, the PSA acted as country coordinator for the 7th International Philippine Studies Conference held in Leiden on June 16-19.

            The current PSA Board is composed of the following: Bernardita R. Churchill (President), EufrocioA. Abaya (Vice President), Francis A. Gealogo (Secretary-Treasurer), Corazon B. Lamug, Priscelina Patajo-Legasto, Bienvenido Lumbera, Virginia A. Miralao, Jose M. Cruz, S.J., Nicanor Tiongson, Tomasito Talledo, Rowena Reyes-Boquiren, Erlinda K. Alburo, Elizabeth L. Enriquez, Alice Pingol, and Rudy Rodil.






Updates on Conferences 2003-2004
International Conference on Macau-Philippines Historical Relations
February 18-20, 2004, University of Macau


Bernardita R Churchill, PNHS President, led the Philippine delegation to the International Conference on Macau-Philippines Historical Relations held at the International Library Building of the University of Macau in Taipa Island, Macau, China last February 18-20, 2004. She was also the Keynote Speaker of the Opening Ceremonies, touching on “Philippine Historical Writing on Macao-Portuguese-Philippine Relations: Agenda for Research and Collaboration,” which set the tone of the conference that was meant to highlight the historic ties between Macau and the Philippines that endured but was largely submerged in documentation and historical writing that naturally leaned towards the Spanish presence.


Paper presenters came from Portugal, the Philippines, Macau, and Taiwan comprising four panels for the two-and-a half day conference that saw the results of research showing the continuous religious and commercial contact between Manila and Macau despite the official closure of Philippine ports to the Portuguese and other foreigners.


The other participants from the Philippines were: Fr. Jose Arcilla, S.J. and Francis Gealogo of the Ateneo de Manila University; Fr. Lucio P. Gutierrez, O.P., Ma. Eloisa P. de Castro, Regalado Trota Jose, and Cynthia Rivera, all from the University of Santo Tomas; and Juan Mesquida of the University of Asia and the Pacific.


An International Organizing Committee on Philippine-Portuguese Historical Research Committee, with Portuguese and Philippine counterparts, was formed to pursue further research and linkages between Portugal and the Philippines. The Philippine Committee is currently chaired by the PNHS President, with Prof. Ivo Carneiro de Sousa (University of Porto and CEPESA - Portuguese Centre for the Study of Southeast Asia) chairing the Portuguese counterpart. The Portuguese Ambassador to the Philippines, H.E., João Caetano da Silva, is actively promoting Philippine-Portuguese historical research through the forthcoming International Seminar on “Fernãao de Magalhães: The Historical First Voyage of Globalization” on October 25-26, 2004 at the University of Santo Tomas which will cap the month-long activities of the Portuguese Festival. This International Seminar is the fourth in a series which Ambassador da Salva has initiated since 2002.


International Congress on the Philippines and Spain: The Legacy of Legazpi
March 4-6, 2004, Museum of the Filipino People


Scholars from Spain and the Philippines met and discussed a wide range of views on Hispano-Filipino culture in the International Congress on The Philippines and Spain: The Legacy of Legazpi, held from March 4-6, 2004, at the Museum of the Filipino People, Manila. This conference was the culminating activity in a series of activities held in Spain and the Philippines to commemorate Miguel Lopez de Legazpi’s 500th Birth Anniversary.

There were five panels for the three-day conference which were on: (1) Legazpi and His Time; (2) Philippine Society and Economy during the 17th-19th centuries; (3) The New Economy and Social Reforms in the early 19th century; (4) Education and the Formation of the Filipino Identity; and (5) Fil-Hispanic Cultural Relations.


Twelve historians and scholars from Spain arrived to present papers on different topics. They were: Fr. Isacio Rodgriguez, OSA – “The Relationship Between P. Urdaneta and Legazpi”; Miguel Luque – “Miguel Lopez de Lagazpi and His Stay in Spain and Mexico”; Fernando Palanco – “The Spanish Settlement in the Philippines” and “The Filipino Identity”; Luis Alonso – “The Tobacco Industry”; Inmaculada Alva – “The Municipality of Manila in the 17th Century”; Maria Manchado – “Bourbonic Regalism in the Philippines”; Antonio Abásolo – “The Spanish Image of the Chinese in the Philippines”; Ion De la Riva – “Fil-Hispanic Culture in Casa Asia of Barcelona”; Fr. Blas Sierra – “Fil-Hispanic Art in the Oriental Museum of Valladolid”; Alfredo J. Morales – “ The Philippines – An Art of Synthesis”; Paloma Albalá – “Description of Philippine Languages by Spanish Missionaries”; and Beatriz Alvarez Tardio – “ Filipino Literature in Spanish”.


There were fifteen paper presenters from the Philippines which included Spaniards who are now based here. They were: Fr. Jose Arcilla, S.J. – “First Contacts Between Legazpi and the Island Tribes”; Fr. Pedro Galende, O.S.A. – “Martin de Rada: Defender of the Filipino People”; Fr. Lucio Gutierrez, O.P. – “Domingo de Salazar, O.P.: The First Bishop of Manila”; Augusto de Viana – “Natives in the Philippines in 17th Century Marianas: The Establishment of the Spanish Mission”; Luis Dery – “Las Cajas de Reservas: The Roots of Landlordism in the Philippines”; Arcadio Malbarosa – “The Spanish Contribution in the Formation of the Filipino Enterprise”; Marciano de Borja – “ The Basques in the Philippines”; Juan Mesquida – “Lending Activities of the Obras Pias in the Maritime Trade of Manila (1668-1823)”; Eloísa P. de Castro – “ Examining Education in 19th Century Dominican Institutions in Intramuros: A Visual Review”; Armand Fabella – “The Spanish Contribution to Education in the Philippines”; Fr. Fidel Villarröel, O.P. – “The University of Santo Tomas and the Primary Schools”; Ambeth Ocampo – “The Influence of Spanish Liberalism in the Blossoming of the Filipino Identiry”; Fernando Zialcita – “Coercion or Consensus? The Process of State Formation”; Santiago Pilar – “Philippine Painting During the Spanish Period”; and Lourdes Brilliantes – “The Premio Zobel Writers.”.


A Commemorative Exhibit was also opened in the National Museum in Manila following its inauguration and run in Zumárraga, Guipozcoa, Spain, the birthplace of Legazpi. It showcased items that were loaned from Spanish and Mexican museums, as well as items from San Agustin Museum and local collections that were put together especially for the event. A number of the items were shown in Manila for the first time.


These activities were organized by the Spanish Ministry for Education, Culture and Sports, the Spanish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Sociedad Estatal para la Acción Cultural Exterior, and Sociedad Estatal de Commemoraciones Culturales under the Coordination of Professor Leoncio Cabrero and Secretary General Professor Adolfo Carrascoso, both of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. The Board of Advisers were Fr. José Arcilla, S.J. of the Ateneo de Manila University, Manila; Ambassador Delfin Colomé, Director of Asia-Europe Foundation; Dr. Javier Galván Guijo, Director of Instituto Cervantes, Manila; Fr. Blas Sierra, O.S.A., Director of Museo Oriental in Valladolid, Spain; and Dr. Benito Legarda, Jr. The Instituto Cervantes de Manila and the National Museum collaborated for the exhibit and the international conference.


As part of this year’s celebration of the Philippine-Spanish Friendship Day on June 30, as well as continuing the commemoration of the Quincentennary of Legazpi’s birth, the San Agustin Church organized an exhibit on “Enduring Friendship” which focuses on the significant interfacing of Spanish and Filipino culture beginning with the arrival of Legazpi and manifested in spiritual, political, educational, agricultural and commercialactivities. This well-organized exhibit was put together by Fr. Pedro Galende, O.S.A., Director of the San Agustin Museum and may be viewed until December 30, 2004.


The 7th International Conference on Philippine Studies (7th ICOPHIL)

June 16-19, 2004, University of Leiden, The Netherlands


The 7th International Conference on Philippine Studies was organized to provide a forum for scholars engaged in research on Philippine society, economy and environment.

Hosted by the International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS) at the University of Leiden, the conference theme was “The Philippines; Changing Landscapes, Humanscapes, and Mindscapes in a Globalizing World.” There were approximately 245 participants, inclusive of observers, and 240 paper presentations in about 60 panels by Philippinists (Filipinists) world wide coming from the Philippines (the biggest contingent of 94), the Netherlands (43), France (8), Germany (7), the United Kingdom (8), Portugal (3), Switzerland (2), one each from Spain, Sweden, Norway, Poland, Austria, Russia (4), United States (38), Canada (7), Australia (6) and New Zealand (1), Japan (11), Hong Kong (2) , and one each from Singapore, Thailand, and Mexico.

The keynote address was delivered by then Secretary of Education, Dr. Edilberto C. de Jesus and his talk was titled “Digital and Other Divides in a Developing Country: The Philippines in 2004” from the impressive pulpit of the historic Pieterskerk (St. Peter’s Church), where also Prof. Muijzenberg Otto van den Muijzenberg. Conference Convenor, and H.E. Philippine Ambassador Romeo A. Arguelles delivered welcome remarks.


The conference convenor and chair of the 7th ICOPHIL Organizing Committee – Prof. Muizenberg of the University of Amsterdam – is the pioneer Dutch academic specializing in Philippine studies. The International Philippine Studies Committee is chaired by Prof. Belinda A.Aquino, Director of the Center for Philippine Studies at the Unversity of Hawaii at Manoa, who has been responsible for institutionalizing the holding of an International Philippine Studies Conference every four or five years to bring together scholars in the field from various parts of the world. The PNHS President was Conference Coordinator for Philippine participation to the 7th ICOPHIL Conference and she had also convened a preparatory conference in December 2003 (3rd National Philippine Studies Conference) at the Philippine Social Science Center. The PNHS President was elected the new President of the Philippine Studies Association after last December’s conference.

The largest number of panels, in the observation of one of the participants, Paul A. Rodell, was devoted to history. One panel was devoted to new studies of Philippine economic history in the Spanish and American colonial periods, and included such topics as Jewish entrepreneurs, banking and currency, land tenure, and popular consumption. There was also a panel of papers about Portuguese historical sources on the Philippines, while another was devoted exclusively to the Philippine-Chinese experience as seen through literature and religion. The American colonial period was the topic of three panels that considered such wide-ranging issues as race and the definition of Philippine citizenship, the prohibition of opium, the regulation of forestry, the construction of ideas of the cacique system inherited from the Spanish era, and American definitions of their own colonial experience. In another panel, a paper was presented on the development of the colony’s prison system at Bilibid and another analyzed the American colonial introduction of a policing structure based on a modern system of surveillance and intelligence gathering that helped insure the new colonizer’s control in the 1899-1909 period. Another panel looked at elite class formation, collaboration, and politically related elite criminal activity the Spanish period. Additional papers presented in other panels explored a variety of issues such as Quezon and Philippine nationalism, the repercussions of the Tydings-McDuffie Act on the sugar industry, the complex role of the country’s Spanish community during the Japanese education, and women’s education during the late Spanish period.


In addition, there were also panels dealing with literature and language, film and culture, issues concerning indigenous peoples, environment, biodiversity, urbanization, disasters, religion and popular protest, the diaspora of overseas foreign workers, tourism, youth, health concerns, and international relations.


The conference also featured opening day addresses by Susan Russell of Northern Illinois University and Charles Macdonald of the Université de Provence, France. There were also four broad-based roundtables discussing the state of Philippine studies by scholars from around the world, international cooperation in research projects, a post-mortem to the recently held Philippine national elections, and a double-session reviewing the life-time works of the conference convenor, Prof. Otto van den Muijzenberg. (See article of Paul A. Rodell in Bulletin of the American Historical Collection XXXIII:3 (128) (July-September 2004): 47-62 ).


The 7th ICOPHIL was part of an international series, which started in 1980 in Kalamazoo, Michigan. Since then, conferences have been hosted by Hawaii (1981, 1996), the Philippines (PSSC and UP 1989, 2000) and Australia (Canberra,1992). The 7th ICOPHIL Conference served concurrently as the 5th EUROPHIL Conference. Started in 1991 in Amsterdam, European Studies Conferences have been held in London (1994), Aix-en-Provence (1997), Alcalde Henares (2001). (See Programme and Book of Abstracts, 7th ICOPHIL, 16-19 June 2004, Message from Belinda A. Aquino, p. 11; also article of Belinda A. Aquino, “When Filipinos meet,” in Philippine Daily Inquirer, June 27, 2004, p. A-15.)


There were several special activities during the conference. There was the a two-hour boat trip/dinner cruise from Leiden through a number of canals, rivers, and lakes to Alphen aan den Rijn, with magnificent views the Dutch polder landscape, including some windmills, folding bridges, old farm houses, and boat houses, ending in the Avifauna Birds’Park. There, in a newly inaugurated Philippine Hall, can be seen nesting hornbills (kalaw) and various other birds from the Philippines. Through successful breeding programs, Avifauna contributes to the conservation of rare Philippine bird species. There was a Filipiniana exhibition entitled “To Expats in the Philippines: A Schadenberg and P.K.A Meerskamp van Embden,” which opened at the National Museum of Ethnology which displayed part of its Philippine collection – ethnographic materials and photographs -- acquired in the last decades of the 19th century. The recently opened Ayala Museum has an exhibition of some of the collection of Philippine costumes from the National Museum of Ethnology in Leiden.

XIII International Oral History Conference
June 23-25, 2004, Rome, Italy


Two members of the PNHS Board – Assoc. Prof. Digna B. Apilado and Dr. Violeta S. Ignacio – attended the XIII International Oral History Conference held in


Rome, Italy on June 23-25, 2004. The conference is a biennial event of the International Oral History Association (IOHA) and was co-sponsored with the Department of Historical Studies, University of Rome and the City of Rome. The conference theme was “Memory and Globalization.” Dr. Ignacio’s paper was entitled “Filipino Ingeniuty in World War II,” which described the various ways by which Filipinos survived during the Japanese Occupation, based on her extensive research in oral history during World War II. Prof. Apilado’s paper was entitled “Personal Oral History as Told by Filipino Overseas Contract Workers,” which examined in a historical context, from 1978 to the present, the personal oral history that contract workers tell in different social situations. Dr. Evelyn A Miranda, a lifetime PNHS member, also read her paper on radical movements from the 1920s.


15th Annual Manila Studies Conference

August 19-20, NCCA Building, Intramuros, Manila


The Manila Studies Association, Inc. held its 15th Annual Conference at Tanghalan Leandro V. Locsin of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts Building at Intramuros, Manila on August 19-20, 2004. The conference theme was “Facets of Old Manila: Arts, Culture and History.” OIC Executive Director Emilie V. Tiongco of the NCCA and Ambeth Ocampo, Chairman of the National Historical Institute, gave the welcome remarks to the participants.


The conference papers each dealt with a specific facet of Manila – its archaeology and architecture, its esteros and cemeteries, cultural practices/production such their music, the Black Nazarene Devotion and the sinakulo, and description of its inhabitants including sangganos, baklas, and squatters. A panel of four papers also echoed the papers presented in the Macau-Philippines Historical Relations Conference last February 2004.


The following were the speakers and their topics: Javier Galván – “The Urban Evoluton of Manila (1565-1898)”; Fernando Zialcita – “The Case for District Studies”; Celia M. Bonilla – “Aesthetics of Devotion to the Black Nazarene of Quiapo”; Evelyn Caballero Reynolds and William Reynolds – “The Esteros of Manila: Their Changes Through Time”; Ma. Patricia Silvestre – “A Chronicle of Transformation: Quiapo Music from the Colonial Age to Contemporary Times”; Gil G. Gotiangco II – “Ang Sanggano sa Konteksto ng Lipunang Tundo”; Vito Hernandez – “(Mis)Representations and (Mis)Interpretations of Archaeology in Philippine Popular Writing”; Ferdinand Lopez – “Beyond Straight Lines – The Bakla Interrupted”; Lorelei de Viana – “The World of the Necropolis: Public Health and Sanitation in 19th Century Manila Cemeteries”; Joselito B. Zulueta – “The Sinakulo of Bangkal: The Life and Passion of a Makati Barrio”; and Ronaldo B. Mactal – “Iskwater at Iba Pang Problema sa Maynila, 1901-1910: Pananaw at Kasagutan ng Pamahalaang Kolonyal.”


The Panel on the Macao Echo Seminar was composed of the following: Bernardita R. Churchill – “Philippine Historical Writing on Macau-Philippines Relations: Agenda for Research and Collaboration”; Maria Eloísa P. De Castro – “Dominican Sources on Macau in the Philippines: A Bibliographic Essay”; Francis Gealogo – “Macanistas in the Philippines: Economic and Demographic Dimensions of Macau-Philippines Relations” and Regalado Trota Jose – “Probing the Macau-Philippines Ivory Route: Leads and Questions.”


Nueva Ecija-Cavite National Conference on Local History and Historiography

September 7-8, 2004, Central Luzon State University

Muñoz, Nueva Ecija


Sponsored by The Center for Central Luzon Studies, Cavite Studies Center, Cavite Studies Center, De La Salle University-Dasmariñas, National Historical Institute


This national conference is a collaborative effort between the Center for Central Luzon Studies and the Cavite Studies Center/Cavite Historical Society to explore links in local history between the Provinces of Cavite and Nueva Ecija and the historiography of local history.


The papers presented included the following: “Local History and the National Discourse: The Case of Nueva Ecija and the Revolution,” by Vivencio R. Jose (UP Diliman); “Cavite in Philippine History,” by Teresita P. Unabia (De La Salle University-Dasmariñas); “Ang Kahalagahan at Balangkas ng Kasaysayan Lokal,” by Emmanuel F. Calairo (Cavite Studies Center); “Saliksik Pampanitikan sa Kulturang Lokal: Isang Karanasan,” by Efren R. Abueg; “The Role of the National Historical Institute in Promoting Local History,” by Regino P. Paular (National Historical Instituite); “Putting Up a Local Library: Methods in Sourcing Collections,” by Maria Luisa C. Moral (Cavite Studies Center); “The Philippine National Archives: An Overview,” by Michael C. Francisco (Cavite Studies Center),; “Ang Pagsasaliksik Gamit ang Kasaysayang Oral,” by Victor Immanuel R. Cuatro (De La Salle University-Dasmariñas); and “Ang Pel;ikula Bilang Batis angkasaysayan,” by Neil Santillan (UP Diliman). A workshop on the preparation of research proposals was offered by the following facilitators: Efren R. Abueg, Emmanuel F. Calairo, Ma. Editha N. Lim, and Maria Luisa C. Moral. Prof. Ma. Edita N. Lim is Director of the Central Luzon Studies, which is a unit under the umbrella of the College of Arts and Sciences headed by Dean Marilou G. Abon, Ph.D.


4th National Philippine Studies Conference

September 16-18, 2004

University of the Philippines Baguio


The Philippine Studies Association (PSA), in cooperation with the University of the Phillippines Baguio, held the 4th National Philippine Studies Conference on the theme “Ethnic Identities in the Philippines” on September 16-18, 2004 at The Golden Pine Hotel and Restaurant, Baguio City. The conference theme covered broad multi-disciplinal perspectives and approaches to the issues associated with ethnicity and identity. Fifty papers were presented along the following sub-themes: Ethnicity and Environment; Ethnicity, Practice and Modernity; Cultural Politics of Identity Formation; Identity and Agency; Emerging Discourse on Ethnicity; Colonial Mediation and Ethnic Identity; Ethnic Realities/Rhetorical Ethnicities; Self, Gender and Ethnicity; Ethnicity and Literature; Ethnicity and Development; Historicizing Ethnicity; and Ethnicity and Popular Culture. The keynote speaker was Prof. Ponciano Bennagen, delivered an address entitled “Problematizing and Negotiating Ethnicity: Aerial Views and Ground Truths.” The Conference Organizing Committee consisted of Rowena Reyes- Boquiren (Local Convener, UP Baguio, PSA Board Member), Francis A. Gealogo (PSA Secretary-Treasurer), Eufracio C. Abaya (PSA Vice President), and Bernardita R. Churchill (PSA President.





Forthcoming Conferences



Portuguese International Seminar
“Fernão de Magalhães: The Historical First Voyage of Globalization”

October 25-26, 2004

Faculty of Arts and Letters

University of Santo Tomas

Conference Room, Central Library

For Information, call Janet or Letty at 406-1611, loc. 8220



18th IAHA (International Association of Historians of Asia) Conference

December 6-10, 2004

Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan


Conference Theme: Paradigm Shift in Asia: East, Southeast, and South Asia in Comparative Perspective




Asian Scholarship Foundation

Asian Studies in Asia ASIA Fellows Awards


            The Asian Scholarship Foundation currently offers the Asian Studies in Asia ASIA Fellows Awards. The Foundation aims to increase overall awareness of the intellectual resources of the countries of South and Southeast Asia and the People’s Republic of China. The Fellows Awards support young scholars and mid-career professionals to carry out a research project or undertake a course of study for a period of six to nine months in any field in Asian Studies – Arts, Culture, Humanities, and Social Sciences. The Philippine Social Sciences Council (PSSC), of which the PNHS is a founding member, is the ASF partner institution for the Philippines. For inquires, please contact


International Fellowships Program (IFP)


            The IFP provides graduate fellowships to women and men who would not normally have the opportunity for graduate study because of geographic isolation, family poverty, or discrimination due to ethnicity, physical disability, gender, or other factors. The program covers the cost of three years of graduate study, including tuition and university fees, travel allowance, living allowance, health insurance coverage, and pre-academic training in English language proficiency, social research conceptualization and methodologies, and basic computer operations and programs. The IFP is being administered in 22 countries. In the Philippines, it is being administered by the Philippine Social Sciences Council in cooperation with regional and provincial universities and civil society organizations. For inquiries please contact






PNHS National Conferences on Local and National History


Since its first national conference on local and national history in 1978, national conferences have been held almost annually in the following venues:


1st 1978 Xavier University, Cagayan de Oro City

2nd 1979 Silliman University, Dumaguete City

3rd 1980 Negros Occidental Historical Commission, Bacolod City

4th 1981 San Carlos University, Cebu City

5th 1982 Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City

6th 1984 College of Social Sciences and Philosophy, UP Diliman

7th 1985 Surigao City Historical Commission, Surigao City

8th 1987 Mindanao State University-General Santos City

9th 1988 Butuan City Historical Commission, Butuan City

10th 1989 Mindanao State University- General Santos City

11th 1990 Ateneo de Naga, Naga City

12th 1991 Mindanao State University-Marawi City

13th 1992 Mindanao State University, Bongao, Tawi-Tawi

14th 1993 University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, North Cotabato

15th 1994 Palawan State University, Puerto Princesa City

16th 1995 Western Mindanao State University, Zamboanga City

17th 1996 Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, Quezon City

18th 1997 Mindanao State University-Sulu, Jolo

19th 1998 Leyte Normal University, Tacloban City

20th 1999 University of the Philippines College Baguio, Benguet Province

21st 2000 Ateneo de Naga University, Naga City

22nd 2001 Silliman University, Dumaguete City

23rd 2002 UP Cebu College, Cebu City.

            24th 2003 Surigaonon Heritage Center, Surigao City

            25th 2004 Cavite State University, Indang, Cavite






PNHS Publications in Print



Journal of History, 1991-1992 - Selected Papers on Bikol Studies

            (January-December 1998)

Journal of History, 1993-1994 - Cities in Philippine History

(January-December 2000)

Journal of History, "A Century of Education in the Philippines”

Vol. XLVIII:1-2 (January-December 2002)


Monograph Series


Publication No. 1- In Search of Historical Truth (1992), edited by

            Leslie E. Bauzon (Out of Print)

Publication No. 2 - The Story of a Province - Surigao Across the

          Years (1993), by Fernando A. Almeda, Jr.

Publication No. 3 - Land of Hope, Land of Want, A Socio-Economic

            History of Negros (1571-1985) (1994) by Violeta Lopez-Gonzaga

Publication No. 4 - The Revolution in the Provinces and Other Papers

(1999 Centennial Volume), edited by Bernardita Reyes Churchill


With The National Historical Institute

Proceedings of the Regional Seminar-Workshops on Oral and Local History (1998-1999)


History from the People (Kasaysayan Mula sa Bayan), Vol. 1, Vigan

Edited by Digna B. Apilado

History from the People (Kasaysayan Mula sa Bayan), Vol. 2, Tuguegarao

Edited by Digna B. Apilado

History from the People (Kasaysayan Mula sa Bayan), Vol 3, Muñoz

                        Edited by Violeta S. Ignacio

History from the People (Kasaysayan Mula sa Bayan), Vol. 4, Los Banos

Edited by Violeta S. Ignacio

History from the People (Kasaysayan Mula sa Bayan), Vol. 5, Naga

Edited by Eden M. Gripaldo

History from the People (Kasaysayan Mula sa Bayan), Vol. 6, Miag-ao

Edited by Eden M. Gripaldo

History from the People (Kasaysayan Mula Sa Bayan), Vol. 7, Dumaguete

            Edited by Eden M. Gripaldo

History from the People (Kasaysayan Mula Sa Bayan), Vol. 8, Dapitan

Edited by Violeta S. Ignacio

History from the People (Kasaysayan Mula sa Bayan), Vol. 9, Davao

            Edited by Digna B. Apilado

History from the People (Kasaysayan Mula sa Bayan), Vol. 10, General Santos

Edited by Bernardita Reyes Churchill

History from the People (Kasaysayan Mula sa Bayan), Vol. 11, Cotabato

City, Edited by Eden M. Gripaldo

History from the People (Kasaysayan Mula sa Bayan), Vol. 12, Bago City

Edited by Bernardita Reyes Churchill

History from the People (Kasaysayan Mula sa Bayan), Vol. 13, Calapan

            Edited by Violeta S. Ignacio

History from the People (Kasaysayan Mula sa Bayan), Vol. 14, Surigao City

            Edited by Bernardita Reyes Churchill

            History from the People (Kasaysayan Mula sa Bayan), Vol. 15, Koronadal

                        Edited by Bernardita Reyes Churchill

History from the People (Kasaysayan Mula sa Bayan), Vol. 16, Bangued

                        Edited by Digna B. Apilado


Publications with The Manila Studies Association and The National

Commission for Culture and the Arts-Committee on Historical Research


Manila (1994) - Edited by Bernardita Reyes Churchill

Determining the Truth, The Story of Andres Bonifacio (Being

Critiques of and Commentaries on Inventing a Hero, The Posthumous

Re-Creation of Andres Bonifacio) (1997; Second Printing 1998)

            Edited by Bernardita Reyes Churchill

A History of the Philippines (1998), by Samuel K. Tan (Out of Print)

The Katipunan and the Philippine Revolution (Centennial Volume, 1999),

          Edited by Bernardita Reyes Churchill and Francis A. Gealogo

With The Philippine Social Science Council, Inc.


Philippine Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. II (1993)

History Section done by the Philippine National Historical Society

            “History and Current Situation of the Discipline of History in the

Philippines; Concepts and Terms; Biographies of Historians;

            and Directory of Contemporary Historians”

            Edited by Bernardita Reyes Churchill


Order from: Central Subscription Service

c/o Milagros J. Tolentino, Business Manager

Philippine Social Science Center

Commonwealth Avenue, UP Diliman Quezon City

P.O. Box 205, UP Post Office, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines

Tel: 922-9621* Fax: 929-2671* E-mail:














Bernardita R. Churchill, Ph. D.



Francis A. Gealogo, Ph.D.

Ateneo de Manila University



Earl Jude Paul L. Cleope, Ph.D.

Silliman University

Dumaguete City



Fernando A. Almeda, Jr.

Surigaonon Heritage Center, Inc.

Surigao City

Manuel R. Tawagon

Mindanao State University

Marawi City



Maria Eloisa G. Parco De Castro

University of Santo Tomas



Eden M. Gripaldo, Ph. D.

UP Diliman



Digna B. Apilado

UP Diliman

Emmanuel Franco Calairo

Cavite Studies Center

De La Salle -Dasmarinas, Cavite

Patrick Anthony S. de Castro

Miriam College

Quezon City


Gil G. Gotiangco,Jr., II

UP Diliman

Antonio C. Hila, Ph.D.

De La Salle University - Manila

Violeta S. Ignacio

UP Pampanga

Esmeralda S. Perez

UP College Manila

Helen R. Tubangui

Ateneo de Manila University (ret.)



Leslie E. Bauzon, Ph. D.

UP Diliman





Fernando A. Almeda, Jr. (Surigaonon Heritage Center)

Digna B. Apilado (UP Diliman)

Calbi A. Asain ( MSU-Sulu)

Rolando O. Borrinaga (UP Manila Health Sciences, Palo, Leyte)

Emmanuel F. Calairo (Cavite Studies Center, DLSU-Dasmariñas)

            Bernardita R. Churchill

            Earl Jude Paul L. Cleope (Silliman University)

            Maria Eloisa P. de Castro (University of Santo Tomas)

            Patrick Anthony de Castro (Miriam College)

            Lorelei de Viana (National Historical Institute)

Francis A. Gealogo (Ateneo de Manila University)

Gil G. Gotiangco, Jr. II (UP Diliman)

            Eden M. Gripaldo (UP Diliman)

            Antonio C. Hila (De La Salle University-Manila)

            Violeta S. Ignacio (UP Pampanga)








            I am privileged to convene the 25th National Conference on Local and National History of the Philippine National Historical Society in my home province of Cavite. This conference may yet be the most memorable of all those I have convened in my lifetime. For I am very proud of my Cavite heritage, but I am even more proud to be Filipino. This is the reality of local and national history that is the mission of PNHS.


            This year’s History Week has for its theme “Save our History, Save Our Nation – Ingatan ang ating Kasaysayan, Pangalagaan ang ating Bayan.” This sentiment cannot be more appropriate for our time because it reflects what we have been hearing around us these days – that we are a nation in crisis. Why is this so? I dare say that the major reason for this crisis is because we are a people with short memories and we have learned so little from the lessons of the past. There is also the implication that this nation and our people, including leaders in academe and government, have very little sense of the importance of our historical traditions and cultural heritage and of the moral values passed on to us by our forefathers. Hence, Filipinos sometimes forget they are Filipinos first and foremost, and that their primary responsibility is to serve the nation and for this nation to become a productive member in the global family of nations, for which it should first serve the interests of its own people.


            We can never learn enough of our history and we must continue to learn more about our past. As the foremost Chinese historian, Sima Quian, has written, “Events of the past, if not forgotten, are teachings of the future.” It is, therefore, your responsibility, as well as those of us who have devoted our lives to the study of the history of our country, to make sure that the past is not forgotten, but will serve as our guide to the bright future we foresee for ourselves and the generations to come.


            Thank you for your continued support of PNHS.




Bernardita A. Reyes Churchill

October 9, 2004






PNHS Newsletter Vol. 5



Bernardita R. Churchill



            Maria Eloisa P. de Castro

            Digna B. Apilado